Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) R. Parker

Geographical Distribution

Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) R. Parker [Syn Amoora rohituka (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.], commonly known as Amoora, a member of the family Meliaceae, is native to Asia (temperate), tropical China. It is also distributed in Indian subcontinent- Peninsular and North east India-, Bhutan,  Sri Lanka, Indochina, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua, New Guinea and Philippines. In South India, it is common in lower western Ghats and occasional in upper Ghats regions. These trees are also planted as avenue trees.

Nomenclature:

 Kingdom  Planate  Genus   Aphanamixis
 Order  Sapindales  Species  Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) R. Parker
 Family  Meliaceae

 Botanical Description

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This evergreen tree attains a height of 20-35 ft. The leaves are compound with oblong leaflets. Leaves up to 60cm long; leaflets 7-10, 8-17X4-6 cm. The tree starts flowering at an age of 3-4 yrs.

The inflorescence is   axillary or terminal raceme and longer than leaves.  Flowers are polygamous, with 5 sepals, petals-3 yellow colored. Staminal tube bears 6 stamens. Ovary is 3-trilocular, seeds usually 1-2 per locule, partitioned by orange-red aril.

Each inflorescence bears about 35-50 fruits. The seeds are pearl shaped, 0.9 to 1.27cm in diameter. Each tree yields an average of 8-10 kg seeds yr-1. Each seeds weighs approximately 0.7 – 0.9g. It is found that the seeds of amoora contain 40-45% oil.

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Cultivation/ propagation aspectsAP-img4

Amoora is seed propagated. Seed germination ranges from 80-90% in 20-22 days after sowing. The seeds lose viability quickly in 2-3 months. Fallen seeds or mature seeds are collected from branches.

Establishment of seedlings and propagation

The seeds collected are sown in seedbeds or polybags. Planting of seedlings in the field are preferred after the plants reach 75 cm tall. Weeding is done for equal time interval. The propagation is done through nursery raised seedlings or by sowing the seeds directly.

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Amoora oil and biodiesel